Potential Readings

This is a sort of readings bank, for later use.

Images have a power that is different from words.  Art historians, cultural theorists, photographers and film-makers have all grappled with this problem: what is the difference? How to understand it? How to understand the efficacy of the visual?

Becker, H. S. (2004). Visual evidence: A Seventh Man, the specified generalization, and the work of the reader. Visual Studies, 17(1), 3-11.  The concept of ‘specific generalization’ is important for our work in this class. Copy saved in course collection.

Lister and Wells


Barthes, R., 1981. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Hill and Wang, New York.

Barthes, R., 2003. Extracts from Camera Lucida. in: Wells, L., (Ed.), The Photography Reader. Routledge, London, 19-30.

Barthes, R., 2003. Rhetoric of the Image. in: Wells, L., (Ed.), The Photography Reader. Routledge, London, 114-125.

MEDIA IN RESEARCH: ethnography etc.

Both academic and professional research, including the similiaries and differences across these domains.

Grimshaw, A. (2001). The ethnographer’s eye: ways of seeing in anthropology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Grimshaw, A., Ravetz, A., & ebrary Inc (2005). Visualizing anthropology pp. xi, 167 p). Available from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ucsc/Doc?id=10069606

Becker, H. S. (1998). Categories and Comparisons: How We Find Meaning in Photographs. Visual Anthropology Review, 14(2), 3-10.

Becker, H. S., Knowles, C., & Sweetman, P. (2004). Afterward: photography as evidence, photographs as exposition Picturing the Social Landscape (pp. 193-197). London: Routledge.

Becker, H. S., & Prosser, J. (1998). Visual Sociology, Documentary Photography, and Photojournalism: It’s (Almost) All a Matter of Context.  Visual Sociology 10, 5-14. Reprinted in Image-based research : a sourcebook for qualitative researchers (pp. 84-96). London ;Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Online.

Fewkes, J. H. (2008). The Seductive Gaze Through the Gold Filter: Representation, Color Manipulation, and Technology Choices in Visual Ethnography. Visual Anthropology Review, 24(1), 1-11.

Collier, M.,  (2001). Approaches to analysis in visual anthropology. In van Leeuwen, T., & Jewitt, C., eds. Handbook of visual analysis (pp. 35-60). London: SAGE.

Wagner, J. (2004). Constructing Credible Images: Documentary Studies, Social Research, and Visual Studies. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(12), 1477-1506.

Banks, M., & Morphy, H. (1997). Rethinking visual anthropology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Prosser, J. (1998). Image-based research: a sourcebook for qualitative researchers. London; Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

Stanczak, G. C. (2007). Visual research methods: image, society, and representation. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.


Hinegardner, L. (2009). Action, Organization, and Documentary Film: Beyond a Communications Model of Human Rights Videos. Visual Anthropology Review, 25(2), 172-185.

MacDougall, D., & Taylor, L. (1998). Transcultural cinema. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Pink, S., 2007. Walking with Video. Visual studies 22, 240 – 252.

Ruby, J. (2000). Picturing Culture: Explorations of Film and Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Babash, I., and L. Taylor. 1997. Cross-cultural filmmaking [electronic resource]: a handbook for making documentary and ethnographic films and videos. Berkeley, Ca: University of California Press.

Campus has access to an ethnographic film archive.

Rose, G. (2001). Visual methodologies: an introduction to the interpretation of visual materials. London: Sage.

Relationships with participants

Danzico, L., 2010. Between the Lines: The Art of Editing: The New Old Skills for a Curated Life. interactions 17. How we edit others.

J. Lydall, I. Strecker, Men and women on both sides of the camera, in: M. Postma, e. Peter I. Crawford (Eds.) Reflecting Visual Ethnography: Using the Camera in Anthropological Research CNWS Publications Leiden, 2006.


This list is highly tentative —

Postma, Metja. From description to narrative: what’s left of ethnography?  In Postma, M., Peter I. Crawford, e., 2006. Reflecting Visual Ethnography: Using the Camera in Anthropological Research. CNWS Publications Leiden. About the decisions made in making an ethnographic film, including still images.

Harrison, B. (2002). Photographic visions and narrative inquiry. Narrative Inquiry, 12, 87-111

Rich, M. (2002). Show is Tell. Narrative Inquiry, 12, 405-412. response to Harrison

Chalfen, R. (2002). Hearing what is shown and seeing what is said. Narrative Inquiry, 12(2), 397-404. response to Harrison

Squire, C. (2008). Approaches to Narrative Research.

Franzosi, R. (1998). Narrative Analysis-Or Why (And How) Sociologists Should be Interested in Narrative. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 517-554.

Branigan, E. (1992). Narrative comprehension and film. London ; New York: Routledge.

McQuillan, M. (2000). The narrative reader. London ; New York: Routledge.

Lieblich, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., & Zilber, T. (1998). Narrative research: reading, analysis and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Scholes, R. E., Phelan, J., & Kellogg, R. L. (2006). The nature of narrative. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mitchell, W. J. T. (1981). On narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Poddiakov, A. (2002). Photographs and counter-narratives. Narrative Inquiry, 12, 113-120.

Steiner, W. (2004). Pictorial narrative. In M.-L. Ryan (Ed.), Narrative across media : the languages of storytelling (pp. 145-177). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Watson, C. (2008). Tensions and aporias in the narrative construction of lives. Qualitative Research, 8(3), 333-337.


When we talk about specific media, we will mix theory and practice. The how-to part will include making and editing, plus relevant tools.


Making media/Digital Storytelling

Lambert, J. (2006) Digital Storytelling: capturing lives, creating community. 2nd ed. Digital Diner Press, Berkeley, CA.


a. How to

b. In research, usability, etc.

c. Theory

Bull, S., 2010. The meanings of photographs. In Photography. Routledge, London ; New York.; pp.31-59.  Includes a summary of Barthes’ studium and punctum.  I have the book; need to scan the chapter.

Prosser, J., & Schwartz, D. (1998). Photographs within the sociological research process Image-based research : a sourcebook for qualitative researchers (pp. 115-130). London ;Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

Clark, L., & Zimmer, L. (2001). What We Learned from a Photographic Component in a Study of Latino Children’s Health. Field Methods, 13(4), 303-328.

Ozdemir, A. (2008). Shopping Malls: Measuring Interpersonal Distance under Changing Conditions and across Cultures. Field Methods, 20(3), 226-248. time-lapse photos

Lewis, J. (2010). Portraits from the edge — Kiribati — putting a face to climate change. Visual Communication, 9. photo essay


a. How to

b. In research, usability, etc.

c. Theory

Pink, S. (2004). In and out of the academy: video ethnograohy of the home. Visual Anthropology Review, 20(1), 82-88.

Heath, C., Hindmarsh, J., & Luff, P. (2010). Video in qualitative research : analysing social interaction in everyday life. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Jacobs, J. K., Hollingsworth, H., & Givvin, K. B. (2007). Video-Based Research Made Easy: Methodological Lessons Learned from the TIMSS Video Studies. Field Methods, 19(3), 284-299.    “As part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 video study, more than 200 randomly selected eighth-grade mathematics lessons were filmed in Germany, Japan, and the United States.”  A bunch of hands-on lessons, e.g., know how the video fits project goals.

Jules-Rosette, B., McVey, C., & Arbitrario, M. (2002). Performance Ethnography: The Theory and Method of Dual Tracking. Field Methods, 14(2), 123-147. interesting way to use video — incls video commentary on the video. “The ethnographic subject and videomakers work collaboratively to uncover the interior realities motivating the performance. The authors review previous approaches to ethnographic filmmaking and then suggest digital video overlay as a method of presenting the actual performances and the subjective experiences of performers simultaneously.”


a. How to

b. In research, usability, etc.

c. Theory

Galvez, G., Mankowski, E. S., Braun, M. F., & Glass, N. (2009). Development of an iPod Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview to Increase the Representation of Low-Literacy Populations in Survey Research. Field Methods, 21(4), 407-415.

Wingstedt, J., Brändström, S., & Berg, J. (2010). Narrative Music, Visuals and Meaning in Film. Visual Communication, 9. How music affects the meaning.


a. How to

b. In research, usability, etc.

c. Theory

Dicks, B., Soyinka, B., & Coffey, A. (2006). Multimodal ethnography. Qualitative Research, 6(1), 77-96.


Manovich, L. (2007). DEEP REMIXABILITY. Artifact, 1(2), 76 – 84.

Pink, S., 2007. Walking with Video. Visual studies 22, 240 – 252.  The benefits of walking with people, letting them tell you about a place, and videoing the process.


Clancey, W. J. (2001). Field Science Ethnography: Methods for Systematic Observation on an Arctic Expedition. Field Methods, 13(3), 223-243.


a. How to

b. In research, usability, etc.

c. Theory

Guillemin, M., & Drew, S. (2010). Questions of process in participant-generated visual methodologies. Visual Studies, 25(2), 175 – 188.

Galman, S. A. C. (2009). The truthful messenger: visual methods and representation in qualitative research in education. Qualitative Research, 9(2), 197-217.

Packard, J. (2008). “I’m gonna show you what it’s really like out here”: the power and limitation of participatory visual methods. Visual Studies, 23(1), 63-77.

Bloustien, G., & Baker, S. (2003). On not talking to strangers: researching the micro worlds of girls through visual auto-ethnographic practices. Social Analysis, 47(3), 64-80.

Meadows, D. (2003). Digital Storytelling: Research-Based Practice in New Media. Visual Communication, 2(2), 189-193.

Gotschi, E., Delve, R., & Freyer, B. (2009). Participatory Photography as a Qualitative Approach to Obtain Insights into Farmer Groups. Field Methods, 21(3), 290-308.

A critique of these approaches and the ways these media are often interpreted (as well as of some audience-response research; the latter is not relevant to this course): Buckingham, D. (2009). `Creative’ visual methods in media research: possibilities, problems and proposals. Media, Culture and Society, 31(4), 633-652.  Emphasizes participant-generated media.


Hammond, J. D. (2004). Photography and ambivalence Visual Studies, 19(2), 135-145.

Winston, B., & Prosser, J. (1998). “The camera never lies”: the partiality of photographic evidence Image-based research : a sourcebook for qualitative researchers (pp. 60-68). London ;Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

Hölzl, I. (2010). Moving Stills: Images That are no Longer Immobile. Photographies, 3(1), 99 – 108.

Media in Tech Design, Data in Tech Design

Suchman, L.A., 2001. Located Accountabilities in Technology Production. Department of Sociology, Lancaster University. About assumptions and alternative approaches to the relationships among researchers, participants, designers, and design.

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