Tagore wrote this piece in 1922, at the very first signs that India might emerge from a 400-year period of colonial/capitalist/foreign rule.
meanwhile, he notes that
The political and commercial adventures carried on by Western races—very often by force and against the interest and wishes of the countries they have dealt with—have created a moral alienation, which is deeply injurious to both parties
Western cultural modes and thought, according to Tagore (and I borrow from elsewhere in his speech here),
[become] an impediment when taken into different surroundings, just as when lungs are given to the whale in the sea.
in the design of his own educational mechanism, Tagore offers a contrasting directive:
in our centre of Indian learning, we must provide for the co-ordinate study of all these different cultures,—the Vedic, the Puranic, the Buddhist, the Jain, the Islamic, the Sikh and the Zoroastrian. The Chinese, Japanese, and Tibetan will also have to be added
however, Tagore offers few clues in these essays how these different studies will be “co-ordinated.” although we can infer from Tagore’s general ideas about oneness and unity that these studies will be somehow integrative, we have no idea how different cultures will be related to each other, or contrasted, if at all.
can’t the integrative study of external cultures be, in its own way, colonial? instead of taking your culture and bringing it elsewhere, you absorb the culture of others, thus blurring the line between you and they. not that there aren’t advantages of integrating across cultural lines, especially in a multiethnic state like India, but doesn’t Tagore’s point about lungs and whales still have some bearing?